Intravitreal injection (IVI)
Intravitreal injection (IVI) is the method of administration of drugs into the eye by injection with a fine needle. The medication will be directly applied into the vitreous humor. It is used to treat various eye diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, and infections inside the eye such as endophthalmitis. As compared to topical administration, this method is beneficial for a more localized delivery of medications to the targeted site, as the needle can directly pass through the anatomical eye barrier (e.g. cornea, conjunctiva and lens) and dynamic barrier (e.g. tears and aqueous humor). It could also minimize adverse drug effect to other body tissues via the systemic circulation, which could be a possible risk for intravenous injection of medications.